Dundee, Michigan – “The Hub of Highways”

William D. Loreaux Takes A Bottoms Up, Backward Look at the Historic Water Tower

William D. Loreaux. 1885-1976. William D. Loreaux was born on a farm in Wayne County, Ohio on January 8, 1885. In 1910, he received a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering from Ohio State University at Columbus. He spent the next several years acquiring more technical expertise, working in industry, and teaching in Cleveland Public schools. In 1926, he took a job at the Flint Water Department and in 1932 he came to Dundee, taking over from Otto Spohr, the local plant’s first engineer.

The history of Dundee’s Water System. It was completed in December 1930, at a cost of $44,000, after a vote on the bond issue narrowly squeezed through. Water was previously pumped from Sulphur wells at Water Works Park on Ypsilanti Street.  The water is taken from the River Raisin near the Toledo Street plant, treated chemically, softened and filtrated at the plant and then pumped into one of the two tanks in the park. In the 20 years of operation, (1970s figures) customers have tripled to 600, and pumpage has increased four times. There have been so many expansions on the distribution system that Mr. Loreaux estimates that the mileage of the pipe has doubled. The record number of gallons pumped per day is 275,000.

Changes in operation and a reduction in electric rates which has reduced power costs from $88 to $35 per million gallons has given the plant a chance to operate in the black on expenses. Today, the value of the plant is over $150,000, Mr. Loreaux says.

William married Lillian Riley on June 19, 1919, in Copperhill. They lost a son, Eugene, 23, in a flight training accident at Freeman Field, Indiana, in 1944. Their only other child was a daughter, Mary Elizabeth.

He is buried in Maple Grove Cemetery.

Times Before the Water Towers

Long before the birth and demise of its old water tower and the rise of its new tower with the Cabela emblem, the village of Dundee, Michigan began as hopes for better lives in the hearts of stalwart pioneers, many from New York, strong muscular axe arms, and dreams of opportunities thicker and wider than the dense woods hugging the River Raisin. Today, the village of Dundee, incorporated in 1871 and the surrounding Dundee Township are part of the Monroe, Michigan metropolitan area.

John McClelland Buckley in his History of Monroe County, Michigan narrated some early Dundee and Dundee Township history. He wrote that the records show that William H. Remington recorded the first land entry for a homestead on July 23, 1823 and Riley Ingersoll and George Wilcox built cabins in the Dundee wilderness in 1824. Other pioneer names appearing in the record of claiming land in the hardwood forest wilderness included Samuel Jenner, Nathaniel Richmond, George Wilcox, Samuel Barber, Riley Ingersoll, Martin Smith, Heman Spaulding, Justus and Charles Jermain, Enos Kent, Ira Irons, George Pettingill, William Verdon, Sam Rankin, and Walter Burgess.

In 1825 the only road from Monroe to what was afterwards Dundee, was up the south side of the River Raisin. The road that touched the River Raisin opposite Dundee featured a canoe ferry across the river. the same as to Petersburg, where it touched the River Raisin On this road the setters’ houses passed were Gale, Bliss, Burchard, Farewell, Sorter, Dives, Mettez, and several Frenchmen, who names were not lost to history. In the fall of 1827, with the help of settlers from Monroe, Petersburg, and Blissfield, the early settlers began to build a dam across the River Raisin at Dundee, and they finished a sawmill in 1828 and 1829. The turnpike from La Plaisance to and through Dundee was laid out in 1832, and individual citizens laid out the bridge timber.

The first post office to leave a documentary record was named Winfield, with William Montgomery as postmaster conducting post office business in his own cabin. Alonzo C. Curtis and his parents and brothers were some of the pioneer settlers of Dundee, arriving there in 1828. Alonzo moved the post office into the village. He became the village’s first postmaster and officially named it Dundee, after the city of Dundee, Scotland.

In 1835, Sybrant Van Nest platted the village of Dundee by now stretching along the north shore of the River Raisin and offered land for sale. His pamphlet advertising the village proclaimed “two first rate sawmills and one small gristmill in the village and a large and elegant tavern house.”

Dundee Township was organized in 1838, formed from the adjacent Summerfield Township. The first election was held at the house of Samuel Barber in the spring of 1838. Riley Ingersoll was the first settler in the new township, moving to Michigan Territory from New York in 1824. He bought a part of the Potter farm and built a log house on his land. Captain Richard P. Ingersoll, Riley’s son, was the first white child born in the township.[1]

The first schoolhouse in Dundee, built of logs, dated from 1834-1835. When fire destroyed it, Dundee citizens replaced it with a frame building with better facilities. Some of the early teachers included Doctor Bassford, John Montgomery, William Parker, Junius Tilden, H. Townsend, H. Watling, Rebecca Whitman, Emily Jenney and Mrs. James White.

Mail and transportation in Dundee grew along with its population. In the stage coach days, mail was supposed arrive in the village weekly, but especially in the spring with often impassable roads, the mail didn’t always arrive in a timely manner. When the railroads came, daily mails and the telegraph kept Dundee villagers in touch with the outside world.

The Michigan State Gazetteer of 1867-1868 described Dundee as a township and post village of Monroe County, on the river Raisin, 55 miles south west from Detroit, and five miles north of Petersburg, on the Michigan Southern Railroad, the nearest shipping point. The village contains two flour mills, one paper mill, a lath factory, three steam and one water saw mills, two turning shops and a bowl factory, also one Methodist, one Baptist and one Congregational church, a fine school, a Masonic lodge (Dundee, No. 74), two hotels and several stores and mechanics’ shops. Population of village. 500; of township, 2,000. It has three mails per week. Postmaster—Charles F. W. Rawson.[2]

Five years later in 1873, the Michigan State Gazetteer recorded Dundee’s growth when characterized Dundee as an important inland village, in Dundee township, Monroe county. It is situated at the crossing of the Chicago and Canada Southern R. R. and the Toledo, Ann Arbor and Northern R. R , both now in process of construction. It is 6 miles north east of Petersburg on the L. S. & M. 8. R. R. The river Raisin flows through the village, affording a fine water power. The U. S. Express Co. have an office here, and the place supports a weekly newspaper, the Dundee Enterprise. It also has a paper mill, a woolen mill, a machine shop and some other manufacturing interests. It ships away paper, cheese, staves, brooms, and farm products. The surrounding country has a clay, alluvial soil, and is heavily timbered Dundee was settled in 1827, incorporated 1871, and now has a population of 500. It has a daily mail. Peter Clark, postmaster.[3]

George Lang Map of Dundee and Dundee Township, 1901

George Lang wrote this about Dundee Township in his 1917 Pocket Roadmap of Monroe County, Michigan. “Part of 6, South Range 6, East and West half of Town 6, South Range Seven East; fourteenth township organized by the Legislature on March 31, 1838 out of Summerfield and Raisinville Sections 31, 32,33, in southeast corner, were added to Ida for a time and then set back. No records as to dates can be found.

The first town meeting was held April 1, 1839, at the house of Samuel Barber, who was elected supervisor.  The first land entry was made by William Remington, July 23, 1823.  During the next ten years came Riley Ingersoll, Nathaniel Richmond, Ira Jones, George Wilcox, Martin Smith, William Perdun, Samuel Rankin, Herman Spaulding, Samuel Jenne, Enos Kent, Justus Germain. The turnpike from La Plaisance to and through Dundee was laid out in 1832; bridge across the River Raisin built in 1833. Although no Scotch settlers can be recalled, at the meeting called for that purpose it was named Dundee after Dundee, Scotland. Has many fine farms. First white child born within the limits of the township was R.P. Ingersoll.”[4]

In his 1917 Pocket Roadmap of Monroe County, Michigan, George Lang described the Village of Dundee as: “the second town in the county; was incorporated February 10, 1855; reincorporated April 13, 1871. Territory added, April 2, 1895.

Population: 1,240; 22 miles north of Toledo; 45 miles southwest of Detroit; has two state banks, a large suspender factory, (The Nu-Way Stretch) , flouring mill, elevator, two creameries, two canning factories, a pickle salting plant, laundry, two cigar factories, milk condensery, weekly newspaper, good hotel, good business blocks, four churches, fraternal orders, fine residences, paved streets, municipal lighting plant, water works, high school on University list, splendid railroad connecting over the Ann Arbor, Lake Shore, Detroit, Toledo & Ironton, & Toledo and Detroit; a good hustling town. The first schoolhouse was built in 1834. The post office was called Enfield in 1835 and located two miles east of the present village. Original plat recorded November 12, 1833.  The first settlers were Riley Ingersoll and George Wilcox.  Called Dundee in 1838.”

Over the decades, Dundee Village kept adding transportation and people. Eventually so many trails and railroads crisscrossed in Dundee that the little farming community was dubbed the ‘Hub of the Highways.”  Dundee’s population followed the same growth path. The village’s 1880 population numbered 932. A century later in 1980, the village had grown to 2,575. The village’s year 2,000 population numbered 3,522 and by 2010 it had grown to 3,957.

Practicing History in Practical Dundee Places


The Dundee Historical District

The Dundee Historical District or Dundee’s Downtown District was settled about the same time as the Old Village Historic District in Monroe, both built in their present locations near or on the River Raisin. Dundee (and Monroe’s) original buildings were small, wooden structures, built between 1866-1900, although Dundee traces some of its building to its founding in 1825.  Eventually the businessmen replaced the small wooden buildings with two story brick storefronts.

Dundee’s Historical District is located about one mile east of US-23, along M-50, known locally as West Monroe Street east of the river and Tecumseh Street west of the river, at the bend of the River Raisin. The major part of the Historical District is located on the north side of the river, including Riley, Ypsilanti, East Main, and Tecumseh Streets with south of the river including small parts of West Monroe and Toledo Streets.  Locally, the District is called the “Triangle District,” after the unique shape of the grid plan where Riley and Tecumseh Streets intersect at a 45-degree angle which creates a triangular piece of land cut off by Park Place on the west. The original owners of the Triangular piece of land donated it to the Village of Dundee with the stipulation that it would remain an undeveloped park in the center of the expanding community. Today it is known as Memorial Park, featuring a naval cannon and a bandstand.

The Dundee Historical District was added to the National Register of Historic Places on August 20, 1990.

The Old Mill Museum


The Old Mill Museum, originally the Alfred Wilkerson Grist Mill, is located along the River Raisin on Toledo Street in Dundee. Although the mill dates to 1849, its dam, the largest of several dams located along the River Raisin, was first built in 1827 and rebuilt in 1846. The mill functioned as a gristmill for Dundee’s growing milling industry, but around 1910 it was converted to produce hydroelectricity to furnish Dundee’s only source of power.

Although the mill had the distinction of being the oldest surviving building in Dundee, it was neglected for years and the village almost demolished it in 1934. Then automobile czar Henry Ford bought the building and spent a large sum of money restoring it, although the only addition he made to the original three story mill was a single-story building on the side of it. He converted the mill into a small factory to produce welding tips for the automotive industry. His activities in Dundee were part of his village Industries Program.  He believed that Dundee would be a vital part of the Village Industries Program experiment to see if small towns could be used to contribute to the global automotive industry and he visited Dundee often to check on the progress of his experiment.

After Henry Ford died in 1947, interest and support for his small factory disappeared and in 1954, the building was sold to the Wolverine Manufacturing Company. Once again, the original mill was transformed, this time to produce paper products and it operated until 1970, when the Wolverine Manufacturing Company sold it to the village of Dundee for one dollar. The village converted the mill and its surrounding 13.8 acres into a museum park.

Although the Old Mill Museum was designated as a Michigan Historic Site on August 3, 1979, it is not listed on the National Register of Historic Places in its own right. Instead, it is listed as a contributing property within the Dundee Historic District which was added to the National Register of Historic Places on August 20, 1990.


A much older image of the building and the dam (date unknown)

Pioneer Paragraphs

John S. Babcock. 1813-1889. He was born in Bath, New York on June 30, 1813.  On June 14, 1835, he married Jane Fleming and in 1836, John and his wife Jane came to Dundee with their young son Albert H. who was about six months old.  He provided blacksmithing to the village of Dundee and the surrounding area for nearly 50 years. He died on December 30, 1889 at 76 ½ years old and he is buried in Maple Grove Cemetery, Dundee.7

Rev. Harry Coleman.  1896-1978. Harry Coleman, born in June 1896 on a Dundee Township farm, had to quit Dundee High School in his senior year when his father’s health forced him to help on the farm. For more than year before he left the farm, he worked as a foreman at the Consolidated Paper Mill in Monroe and later at the National Supply Company in Toledo. In 1935, he bought a 120-acre farm on Day Road in Dundee. He farmed until a major operation forced him to give it u p and then he worked as assistant herdsman at the Ypsilanti State Hospital Dairy, maintaining 160 head of cattle, 89 of them cows.  He married Myrtle Zilke on April 7, 1939 after his first wife died in 1937. He took a ministerial training course in the Methodist Church, and served as a replacement when the Rev. Charles F. Bragg retired. He served three years on the board of education, and he was a member of the Community Chest and bond drives during World War II. He is buried in Oak Grove Cemetery.

Alonzo C. Curtis -1804-1887. Alonzo C. Curtis and his parents and brothers were some of the pioneer settlers of Dundee, arriving there in 1828. Alonzo became the village’s first postmaster and named it Dundee, after his homeland city of Dundee, Scotland. He served Dundee for many years as justice of the peace, a druggist, practiced law, and he also farmed. He died on December 10, 1887 and he is buried in Oak Grove Cemetery, Dundee.

Scott W. Jackson. 1869-1950. Maple Grove Cemetery. He attended Dundee Public Schools and he began teaching at age 17. He taught 39 years, retiring in 1931. He was one of the oldest members of the Dundee Methodist Church. He is buried in Maple Grove Cemetery.

Charles F.W. Rawson. 1812-1903. He settled in Monroe County, Michigan, in 1833 and practiced several occupations including farming, blacksmithing, and operating a boot and shoe shop. He was the Dundee Postmaster for 16 years. He is buried in Maple Grove Cemetery, Dundee.

George W. Richardson- 1852-1934.  George W. Richardson was born in Sanborn, Niagara county, New York state on September 4, 1852. He attended and graduated from the Buffalo College of Medicine in 1878 and came directly to Monroe county where he settled at Cone. After a short time, he removed to Azalia and then to Dundee, having practiced his profession in this vicinity for over 56 years. His tales of those early days in the community will be remembered by the many who enjoyed to converse with him. For the first two years, he walked carrying on his work, later acquiring a horse with which he managed to go farther afield through the woods. For 19 years Dr. Richardson served with Dr. Denias Dawe of Monroe, on the U.S. Pension Board. For several years, he attended lecture courses in Cleveland and New York City, and shortly after received his diploma as a pharmacist from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. He is buried at Maple Grove Cemetery, Dundee.

Donald Erwin Siler. 1900-1985. Donald Erwin Siler was born November 8, 1900, in Dundee to William and Maude Adams Siler. He married Rebecca L. Smith in Dundee. He served as justice of the peace for 16 years, and Governors George Romney and William Milliken appointed him to the Monroe County Jury Commission.  He also was a real estate broker and the owner of Don Siler Real Estate as well as owning and operating the Siler Hatchery for many years.  He held many village offices and was a deacon in the First United Presbyterian Church.  He is buried in Maple Grove Cemetery, Dundee.

Henry Alonzo Stewart, 1838-1906. In 1847, Henry Alonzo Stewart came to Dundee with his parents and until he reached 19 years of age, he lived with Mr. Cady who conducted a hotel in Dundee for many years. Henry learned the blacksmith trade and worked as a blacksmith for five years. In November 1863, he enlisted in Company L of the 2nd Michigan Cavalry. He lost the sight of one eye while serving in the Civil War and he mustered out on August 28, 1865. He was a member of William Bell Post No. 10 of the G.A.R. in Dundee. He married Mary A. Haines on April 15, 1860 and their three children all died in infancy. Henry operated a grocery business in Dundee for many years and was undertaker for two years. He is buried in Maple Grove Cemetery, Dundee.

Judson W. Van DeVenter. 1855-1939. Judson W. Van DeVenter was born on a farm near Dundee, Michigan. After he studied art at Hillsdale College, he became interested in music. He taught at the Rankin School in Dundee in 1878. Eventually, he wrote hymns, probably one of the best-known being “I Surrender All,” found in many church hymn books. He is buried at Maple Grove Cemetery, Dundee.

Charles A. Verschoor. 1888-1943. Charles Verschoor invented the first radio transistor which was produced in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He is buried in Maple Grove Cemetery, Dundee.

Alfred Wilkerson. 1820-1900. Alfred Wilkerson moved to Dundee from Ledyard, New York in 1836. He organized the first Republican Party in Monroe County and in 1859, was its Michigan State Representative. The 1812 Hand Atlas noted that “he has been twice married…and deserves great credit that he has never drank beer or smoked a cigar.”  He is buried in Oak Grove Cemetery, Dundee. A biography of Alfred Wilkerson indicated that he moved to Dundee from Ledyard, NY in 1836. Alfred organized the first republican party in Monroe County and he was the Michigan State Representative in 1859. According to the 1812 Hand Atlas, “He has been twice married…and deserves great credit that he has never drank beer or smoked a cigar.”)

The Serge Williams Story:  The Autobiography of a more recent Dundee resident.


The Business of Dundee is BUSINESS!

Michigan State Gazetteer  -1856-1857

In 1856-1857, the Michigan State Gazetteer reported that Dundee was a post village in the town of Dundee and Monroe County located on the north side of the River Raisin, 18 miles from Lake Erie. Dundee featured a vigorous milling and manufacturing trade with a township and village population of 2,900.  An alphabetical list included:

Henry Angel & Co., flouring mill

William Bell, saw mill and turning factory

J.P. Christiancey, saw mill

Dealand & Goodrich, steam saw mill

Ebenezer Duston, general store

Justin B. Duston, grocer

Daniel DeVeu, shoe store

Fuller & Green, steam saw mill

James W. Gale, general store

Willis Hinsdale, turning factory

Clemon Longe Lee, haress store

John G. Parker, steam saw mill

James Plank, general store

Daniel Reid, turning factory

Watling & Barber, general store

Dundee Business Cards

A listing of some Dundee businesses from  1856-2017.


Dundee Business Briefs

Some Dundee Businessmen and businesswomen


Veterans Voices

Dundee veterans serving America.

Ernest Berndt, 1894-1960.  Ernest was born in St. Joseph, Michigan, on November 29, 1894. He worked on his father’s fruit farm and in a Ford Motor Company assembly plant in Chicago until he was drafted into the Army in 1917. He served as a PFC in M37 Infantry, World War I. After his discharge, he came to Dundee and worked for Beaume-Rauch Co., later Consolidated Paper Company, in Monroe, as a millwright. After eight years, he started his own business selling straw to paper companies and later worked at the Ford Mill. In February 1945, he joined John Norman in buying the Dundee Bar, formerly Fred’s Tavern, from Kurt Fredericks. He is buried in Maple Grove Cemetery, Dundee.

Dr. A. H. DeGroot- 1885-1954. A.H. DeGroot was born on a farm in Vriesland, Michigan, and received his early education in Vriesland, “a widening of the highway about four miles from Zeeland.” Between farming seasons, he worked at a furniture factory in Grand Rapids, and eventually enrolled in the Grand Rapids Veterinary College, graduating with the class of 1917. During his junior year at college, he had the opportunity to become acquainted with Monroe Country when he went to Ida for several months to take over the practice of Dr. D.M. Hagen who was recovering from an operation. After he graduated, he went to Dundee to set up his veterinary practice. In 1918, he enlisted in World War I and was training as a second lieutenant in the Sixth Co. Veterinary Corps when the war ended. He returned to Dundee and resumed his practice. In 1922, he joined Edward A. Schaap in founding the Dundee Hatchery, but in 1936 he dropped out to concentrate on his veterinary practice. On October 4, 1923, he married Leona M. Schultz and they had one daughter. He served on the Dundee Village Council for three years. He is buried in Maple Grove Cemetery, Dundee.

Henry Phillip “Hank” Karen. 1915-2016. He worked for the Karner Brothers Elevator in Dundee, the family business, and during World War II, he was a test pilot and member of the flight crew that flew B-24’s at Willow Run. He ran the Ann Arbor Airport, was a flight instructor and charter pilot, and then a corporate pilot for Hoover Ball Bearing. He retired as Chief Pilot in 1964. After he retired, he joined the Boyne Highlands professional ski patrol.  He loved to hunt and fish and shot a bear at age 91. He is buried in Maple Grove Cemetery, Dundee.

John Owen.1836-1924. He was a teacher and justice of the peace in Dundee.  He was a Civil War veteran. He is buried in Maple Grove Cemetery, Dundee.

Harrison D. Plank-1840-1865. Harrison D. Plank, the son of James and Sarah H. Dubois Plan, was born in 1840, just in time to come of age during the Civil War. He fought in Company H of the 18th Michigan Infantry and he was taken prisoner on September 24, 1864 and paroled on March 16, 1865. On April 27, 1865, he and an estimated 1,547 people, many of them Civil War soldiers eager to return home, boarded the riverboat Sultana to begin the voyage northward and home. When the Sultana had reached a place on the Mississippi River just above Memphis, Tennessee, the Sultana’s boilers exploded. The explosion broke the Sultana nearly in two, and it burned and drifted uncontrollably before grounding on a small island in mid-stream. Harrison drowned in the Mississippi River on April 27, 1865. He has a memorial in Maple Grove Cemetery, Dundee.

Horace Pulver, Sr. 1846-1919. Horace Pulver Sr., was born on August 20, 1846 on the Captain Ingersoll farm near Dundee. Early in life he learned the trade of brick mason and followed that until about 1889, when he opened a stone quarry in Dundee.  He also opened a contracting business and oversaw the construction of the Dundee High School building. In about 1907, he retired from active business. During the Civil War, he enlisted in Company A, 13th Michigan Infantry for two years. He worked actively in the G.A.R. and commanded the local William Bell Post twice. Once or twice a year he visited the school and talked to the pupils about Sherman’s march to the sea. The children called him “Uncle Hod.” He is buried in Maple Grove Cemetery, Dundee.

William H. Pulver. 1834-1905. William H. Pulver was born in New York State in November, 1834. His mother died when William was about ten years old, and he wandered and worked at various places until he married Mary E. Philbeam when he was 29 years old. They settled in Dundee where he opened a carriage and wagon business. The first building he built in Dundee was his house which he built in 1869 and he lived there with his wife and two daughters.  He fought in Company B of the 6th Wisconsin Infantry during the Civil War. He is buried in Maple Grove Cemetery, Dundee.

Captain Nelson White. 1808-1899. Nelson White came to Michigan in 1832, locating his farm two miles west of the village of Dundee. He received his deed from President Andrew Jackson and owned the land since then. For many years after he settled in Dundee, Captain White went back east during the summer, commanding a boat on the Erie Canal. In 1838, he married Emily Jenne and they had ten children. He served as first lieutenant in the company recruited in Monroe County to fight the Toledo War. With his men, he “invaded” enemy territory and always enjoyed telling war stories.  He is buried in Oak Grove Cemetery, Dundee.

More veterans voices


The First Settler’s Story


Dundee Homestead

The First Settler’s Story

by Will Carleton

It ain’t the funniest thing a man can do—

Existing in a country when it’s new;

Nature—who moved in first—a good long while—

Has things already somewhat her own style,

And she don’t want her woodland splendors battered,

Her rustic furniture broke up and scattered,

Her paintings, which long years ago were done

By that old splendid artist-king, the Sun,

Torn down and dragged in Civilization’s gutter,

Or sold to purchase settlers’ bread-and-butter.

She don’t want things exposed, from porch to closet—

And so she kind o’ nags the man who does it.

She carries in her pockets bags of seeds,

As general agent of the thriftiest weeds;

She sends her blackbirds, in the early morn,

To superintend his fields of planted corn;

She gives him rain past any duck’s desire—

Then may be several weeks of quiet fire;

She sails mosquitoes—leeches perched on wings—

To poison him with blood-devouring stings;

She loves her ague-muscle to display,

And shake him up—say every other day;

With thoughtful, conscientious care, she makes

Those travellin’ poison-bottles, rattlesnakes;

She finds time, ‘mongst her other family cares,

To keep in stock good wild-cats, wolves, and bears;

She spurns his offered hand, with silent gibes,

And compromises with the Indian tribes

(For they who’ve wrestled with his bloody art

Say Nature always takes an Indian’s part).

In short, her toil is every day increased,!To scare him out, and hustle him back East;[5]

Dundee settlers didn’t hustle back East.  They stayed in Dundee, built lives and left descendants to attract new settlers into infinity


[1] History of Monroe County, Michigan: a narrative account of its historical progress, its people, and its principal interest. John McClelland Bulkley. Chicago:  Lewis Publishing Company, 1913, p. 150.

[2] Michigan State Gazetteer and Business Directory, 1867-1868   https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015008145842;view=1up;seq=208

[3] Michigan State Gazetteer and Business Directory, 1873.   https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015071130887;view=1up;seq=282

[4] Pocket Road Mpa, Monroe County, Michigan.Centennial Editor, 1917. Geoge E. Lang. Monroe, Michigan:  McMillan Printing Company, 1917. P. 8

[5] The First Settlers Story   http://quod.lib.umich.edu/a/amverse/BAE8956.0001.001/1:5?rgn=div1;view=fulltext

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